Author(s): Testa MA, Simonson DC, Testa MA, Simonson DC
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Abstract CONTEXT: Although the long-term health benefits of good glycemic control in patients with diabetes are well documented, shorter-term quality of life (QOL) and economic savings generally have been reported to be minimal or absent. OBJECTIVE: To examine short-term outcomes of glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). DESIGN: Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel trial. SETTING: Sixty-two sites in the United States. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 569 male and female volunteers with type 2 DM. INTERVENTION: After a 3-week, single-blind placebo-washout period, participants were randomized to diet and titration with either 5 to 20 mg of glipizide gastrointestinal therapeutic system (GITS) (n = 377) or placebo (n = 192) for 12 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Change from baseline in glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels and symptom distress, QOL, and health economic indicators by questionnaires and diaries. RESULTS: After 12 weeks, mean (+/-SE) HbA1c and fasting blood glucose levels decreased with active therapy (glipizide GITS) vs placebo (7.5\% 0.1\% vs 9.3\%+/-0.1\% and 7.0+/-0.1 mmol/L [126+/-2 mg/dL] vs 9.3+/-0.2 mmol/L [168+/-4 mg/ dL], respectively; P<.001). Quality-of-life treatment differences (SD units) for symptom distress (+0.59; P<.001), general perceived health (+0.36; P= .004), cognitive functioning (+0.34; P=.005), and the overall visual analog scale (VAS) (+0.24; P=.04) were significantly more favorable for active therapy. Subscales of acuity (+0.38; P=.002), VAS emotional health (+0.35; P=.003), general health (+0.27; P=.01), sleep (+0.26; P=.04), depression (+0.25; P=.05), disorientation and detachment (+0.23; P= .05), and vitality (+0.22; P=.04) were most affected. Favorable health economic outcomes for glipizide GITS included higher retained employment (97\% vs 85\%; P<.001), greater productive capacity (99\% vs 87\%; P<.001), less absenteeism (losses = $24 vs $115 per worker per month; P<.001), fewer bed-days (losses = $1539 vs $1843 per 1000 person-days; P=.05), and fewer restricted-activity days (losses = $2660 vs $4275 per 1000 person-days; P=.01). CONCLUSIONS: Improved glycemic control of type 2 DM is associated with substantial short-term symptomatic, QOL, and health economic benefits.
This article was published in JAMA
and referenced in Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research