Author(s): Armstrong EJ, Bischoff J
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Abstract During the past decade, single gene disruption in mice and large-scale mutagenesis screens in zebrafish have elucidated many fundamental genetic pathways that govern early heart patterning and differentiation. Specifically, a number of genes have been revealed serendipitously to play important and selective roles in cardiac valve development. These initially surprising results have now converged on a finite number of signaling pathways that regulate endothelial proliferation and differentiation in developing and postnatal heart valves. This review highlights the roles of the most well-established ligands and signaling pathways, including VEGF, NFATc1, Notch, Wnt/beta-catenin, BMP/TGF-beta, ErbB, and NF1/Ras. Based on the interactions among and relative timing of these pathways, a signaling network model for heart valve development is proposed.
This article was published in Circ Res
and referenced in International Journal of Advancements in Technology