Author(s): Bryant MS, Skipper PL, Tannenbaum SR, Maclure M
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Abstract A quantitative method has been developed for the analysis of 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) covalently bound as the sulfinic acid amide to the 93 beta cysteine of human hemoglobin. The method uses mild basic hydrolysis of hemoglobin to release the parent amine, derivatization to form the pentafluoropropionamide, and capillary gas chromatography with detection by negative-ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry. The method is precise and gives reproducible results on multiple blood samples taken from individuals over 48 h. Application of this method to blood samples from cigarette smokers and nonsmokers revealed consistently higher adduct levels in smokers. The mean value for smokers was 154 pg 4-ABP per g Hb compared to 28 pg/g Hb for nonsmokers, with no overlap of adduct levels between the two groups. Studies on quitting smokers revealed that adduct levels declined over a period of 6-8 weeks to nonsmoker levels. The finding of 4-ABP adducts in all nonsmokers was not anticipated but is consistent with low-level ubiquitous contamination of air, food, or water. In other animals sampled, rats and dogs had measurable adduct levels, but monkeys and fish did not. The hemoglobin adduct of 4-ABP is the product of a series of reactions between the hemoprotein and N-hydroxy-4-ABP. The formation of hydroxylamines from carcinogenic aromatic amines and their subsequent reactions with DNA are generally thought to be critical events in the initiation of bladder tumors. We suggest that the observed hemoglobin adduct levels formed by this proximate carcinogen will reflect the extent to which these steps have occurred. This is the first report of 4-ABP adducts in human blood.
This article was published in Cancer Res
and referenced in Biochemistry & Analytical Biochemistry