alexa Heparan sulfate and heparanase play key roles in mouse β cell survival and autoimmune diabetes.


Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology

Author(s): Ziolkowski AF, Popp SK, Freeman C, Parish CR, Simeonovic CJ

Abstract Share this page

Abstract The autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D) that arises spontaneously in NOD mice is considered to be a model of T1D in humans. It is characterized by the invasion of pancreatic islets by mononuclear cells (MNCs), which ultimately leads to destruction of insulin-producing β cells. Although T cell dependent, the molecular mechanisms triggering β cell death have not been fully elucidated. Here, we report that a glycosaminoglycan, heparan sulfate (HS), is expressed at extraordinarily high levels within mouse islets and is essential for β cell survival. In vitro, β cells rapidly lost their HS and died. β Cell death was prevented by HS replacement, a treatment that also rendered the β cells resistant to damage from ROS. In vivo, autoimmune destruction of islets in NOD mice was associated with production of catalytically active heparanase, an HS-degrading enzyme, by islet-infiltrating MNCs and loss of islet HS. Furthermore, in vivo treatment with the heparanase inhibitor PI-88 preserved intraislet HS and protected NOD mice from T1D. Our results identified HS as a critical molecular requirement for islet β cell survival and HS degradation as a mechanism for β cell destruction. Our findings suggest that preservation of islet HS could be a therapeutic strategy for preventing T1D.
This article was published in J Clin Invest and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version