Author(s): Reilly CF, Fritze LM, Rosenberg RD
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Abstract The potential of a given amount of heparin to inhibit smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation can be increased more than 13 fold if quiescent cultures are pretreated with this mucopolysaccharide for 48 h. The large increase in antiproliferative activity was attributable to a 74\% inhibition of the first cell cycle traverse of SMC after serum addition. If the mucopolysaccharide was added to SMC coincident with serum, the initial cell cycle traverse was only suppressed by 27\%. In both heparin pretreated and nonpretreated SMC cultures, 48 to 72 h elapsed before substantial inhibition was observed. The inhibitory effects of heparin were reversible and inversely proportional to the starting cell density of the cultures. The effects of known heparin binding proteins on the inhibitory capability of heparin were examined. Neither platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), low density lipoprotein (LDL), nor platelet factor 4 (PF4) were able to reduce the antiproliferative effects. Heparin retained full biological activity in medium containing serum depleted of all heparin binding proteins by heparin-Sepharose chromatography. These results indicate that heparin does not inhibit growth by preventing serum mitogens or nutrients from interacting with SMC. Rather, our data suggest that heparin is slowly internalized by SMC following binding to specific, non-PF4 dissociable sites. Heparin may accumulate intracellularly and block a crucial point in the proliferative machinery of SMC.
This article was published in J Cell Physiol
and referenced in Journal of Cell Science & Therapy