Author(s): Kumar A, Ahuja CK, Vyas S, Kalra N, Khandelwal N,
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Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hepatic arterial venous fistulae are abnormal communications between the hepatic artery and portal or hepatic vein and commonly occur either secondary to iatrogenic causes like liver biopsy, transhepatic biliary drainage, transhepatic cholangiogram and surgery, or following mechanical insult like blunt or penetrating trauma. Congenital fistulae are rare. Treatment is warranted as an emergency management or in the development of portal hypertension/heart failure in chronic cases. Both surgical and endovascular occlusion of the fistula can be attempted with the latter carrying low intra and post-procedure morbidity. Endovascular treatment has thus currently emerged as a minimally invasive reliable treatment option in such individuals. METHODS AND RESULTS: We describe a short series consisting of four cases of acquired hepatic arterioportal/venous fistulae, which were referred to interventional radiology for endovascular management over the last 2 years. Three patients had arterio-portal communication and one patient had communication between the hepatic artery and middle hepatic vein. Successful embolization through the transarterial route was achieved in all four patients. A brief discussion of these cases is presented along with a relevant review of literature. CONCLUSIONS: Endovascular techniques currently form less invasive and first line treatment options in arterioportal/venous fistulae, surgery being reserved only for unsuccessful embolizations/complex fistulae.
This article was published in Dig Dis Sci
and referenced in Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals