Author(s): Nandakumar S, Kumaraguru U
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Abstract A memory response is established following primary antigen exposure that stays more or less constant. It appears to adopt a set-point in magnitude but upon re-exposure the response is quicker and better and there is an upward shift in memory frequency that varies with individuals based on the exposure pattern to other microbes or its components. Our investigations were designed to test such differences of non-specific stimulation by PAMPs in lowering the threshold of activation. Neonatal mice were pre-exposed to TLR-ligands intermittently and later analyzed for its resilience to challenge with virus during adult-life. Secondly, adult mice with pre-existing memory to virus were exposed to various TLR-ligands and analyzed for their quality of memory response. The TLR-ligands exposed animals were better responders to a new agent exposure compared to the animals kept in sterile surroundings. Moreover, immune memory recall and the viral specific CD8(+) T cells response with TLR-ligands were comparable to the recall response with the cognate antigen. The results provide insights into the role of hyper-sanitized environment versus PAMPs mediated signaling in adaptive immunity and long-term immune memory. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This article was published in Cell Immunol
and referenced in Journal of Allergy & Therapy