alexa HIF-1alpha modulates energy metabolism in cancer cells by inducing over-expression of specific glycolytic isoforms.
Oncology

Oncology

Journal of Cancer Science & Therapy

Author(s): MarnHernndez A, GallardoPrez JC, Ralph SJ, RodrguezEnrquez S, MorenoSnchez R

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Abstract To develop new and more efficient anti-cancer strategies it will be important to characterize the products of transcription factor activity essential for tumorigenesis. One such factor is hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), a transcription factor induced by low oxygen conditions and found in high levels in malignant solid tumors, but not in normal tissues or slow-growing tumors. In fast-growing tumors, HIF-1alpha is involved in the activation of numerous cellular processes including resistance against apoptosis, over-expression of drug efflux membrane pumps, vascular remodeling and angiogenesis as well as metastasis. In cancer cells, HIF-1alpha induces over-expression and increased activity of several glycolytic protein isoforms that differ from those found in non-malignant cells, including transporters (GLUT1, GLUT3) and enzymes (HKI, HKII, PFK-L, ALD-A, ALD-C, PGK1, ENO-alpha, PYK-M2, LDH-A, PFKFB-3). The enhanced tumor glycolytic flux triggered by HIF-1alpha also involves changes in the kinetic patterns of expressed isoforms of key glycolytic enzymes. The HIF-1alpha induced isoforms provide cancer cells with reduced sensitivity to physiological inhibitors, lower affinity for products and higher catalytic capacity (Vmax(f)) in forward reactions because of marked over-expression compared to those isoforms expressed in normal tissues. Some of the HIF1alpha-induced glycolytic isoforms also participate in survival pathways, including transcriptional activation of H2B histone (by LDH-A), inhibition of apoptosis (by HKII) and promotion of cell migration (by ENO-alpha). HIF-1alpha action may also modulate mitochondrial function and oxygen consumption by inactivating the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in some tumor types, or by modulating cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4 expression to increase oxidative phosphorylation in other cancer cell lines. In this review, the roles of HIF-1alpha and HIF1alpha-induced glycolytic enzymes are examined and it is concluded that targeting the HIF1alpha-induced glucose transporter and hexokinase, important to glycolytic flux control, might provide better therapeutic targets for inhibiting tumor growth and progression than targeting HIF1alpha itself.
This article was published in Mini Rev Med Chem and referenced in Journal of Cancer Science & Therapy

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