Author(s): Gray MJ, Zhang J, Ellis LM, Semenza GL, Evans DB,
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Abstract Hypoxia stimulates a number of pathways critical to cancer cell survival, including the activation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) transcription. In normal fibroblasts, hypoxia-induced activation of the protein tyrosine kinase, Src, is required for VEGF expression. We show here in both pancreatic and prostate carcinoma cell lines cobalt chloride (used to mimic hypoxia) -induced VEGF expression requires Src activation and leads to increased steady-state levels of HIF-1alpha and increased phosphorylation of signal and transducer of transcription 3 (STAT3). STAT3 and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha bind simultaneously to the VEGF promoter, where they form a molecular complex with the transcription coactivators CBP/p300 and Ref-1/APE. Expression of activated Src from an inducible promoter is sufficient to increase VEGF expression and form these STAT3/HIF-1alpha-containing promoter complexes. Inhibition of DNA binding by expression of either STAT3 or HIF-1alpha dominant negative mutants significantly reduces VEGF expression. These data suggest that the binding of both STAT3 and HIF-1alpha to the VEGF promoter is required for maximum transcription of VEGF mRNA following hypoxia.
This article was published in Oncogene
and referenced in Journal of Biotechnology & Biomaterials