Author(s): Bogachus LD, Turcotte LP
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Abstract Protease inhibitors (PIs), such as atazanavir sulfate and ritonavir, are used clinically to prevent the progression of HIV and are known to induce insulin resistance. To determine whether PI-mediated insulin resistance is induced by activation of pro-inflammatory cascades, L6 skeletal muscle cells were treated ±atazanavir sulfate, ritonavir, or atazanavir sulfate + ritonavir, and ±insulin. Treatment with atazanavir sulfate, ritonavir, or atazanavir sulfate + ritonavir for 24 or 48 h significantly increased basal glucose uptake (P<0.05) and atazanavir sulfate + ritonavir treatment increased basal glucose uptake significantly more than ritonavir or atazanavir sulfate treatment alone (P<0.05). Atazanavir sulfate + ritonavir treatment for 48 h completely prevented insulin stimulation of glucose uptake (P>0.05). When compared to untreated cells, basal palmitate uptake and oxidation was found to be significantly higher in cells treated with PIs alone or in combination (P<0.05). Prior PI treatment alone or in combination prevented (P>0.05) the insulin-mediated increase in palmitate uptake and the insulin-mediated decrease in palmitate oxidation observed in the control group. Atazanavir sulfate treatment alone or in combination with ritonavir significantly increased JNK1/2 phosphorylation when compared to the control or ritonavir group (P<0.05) and this was accompanied by a rise (P<0.05) in AKT(Ser473) phosphorylation in the basal state. Total JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK protein content and p38 MAPK phosphorylation state were not altered in any of the treatment groups (P>0.05). Our data indicate that, in muscle cells, PIs induce metabolic dysfunction that is not limited to insulin-sensitive metabolism and that is potentially mediated by a rise in JNK1/2 pro-inflammatory signaling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This article was published in Antiviral Res
and referenced in Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals