alexa HIV-1 clade B and C isolates exhibit differential replication: relevance to macrophage-mediated neurotoxicity.
Neurology

Neurology

Journal of Neuroinfectious Diseases

Author(s): Constantino AA, Huang Y, Zhang H, Wood C, Zheng JC

Abstract Share this page

Abstract HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) continue to be a consequence of HIV-1 infection among clade B-infected individuals. In contrast, the incidence of severe neurological impairment is lower among clade C-infected patients in regions of Sub-Saharan Africa and India. Biological aspects such as replication, cytopathicity, inflammatory response, and neurotoxicity unique to each clade influence neuropathogenicity and ultimately affect the clinical outcome of the disease. We hypothesize that productive infection by clade C isolates leads to macrophage-mediated neurotoxicity, although to a lesser extent than clade B isolates. Using a panel of primary isolates of clades B and C we demonstrated that clade B has higher replication efficiency in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) through reverse transcriptase activity assay and HIV-1 p24 antigen ELISA. To test the neurotoxicity of clades B and C, we used an in vitro neurotoxicity model. Conditioned medium from clade B-infected MDM was neurotoxic to rat and human neuron cultures. In contrast, clade C isolates mediated neurotoxicity when a higher initial viral titer was used for MDM infection. Furthermore, neurotoxicity mediated by isolates of both clades correlated with virus replication in MDM. Together, these results suggest that in comparison to clade B, primary isolates of clade C have slower replication kinetics in primary MDM, leading to lower levels of macrophage-mediated neurotoxicity. Elucidating the differences in replication and macrophage-mediated neurotoxicity between isolates of HIV-1 clades B and C will provide important insights needed to clarify the disparity seen in HAND incidence.
This article was published in Neurotox Res and referenced in Journal of Neuroinfectious Diseases

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords