Author(s): Lee CG, Gottesman MM, Cardarelli CO, Ramachandra M, Jeang KT,
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Abstract The FDA approved HIV-1 protease inhibitors, ritonavir, saquinavir, and indinavir, are very effective in inhibiting HIV-1 replication, but their long-term efficacy is unknown. Since in vivo efficacy depends on access of these drugs to intracellular sites where HIV-1 replicates, we determined whether these protease inhibitors are recognized by the MDR1 multidrug transporter (P-glycoprotein, or P-gp), thereby reducing their intracellular accumulation. In vitro studies in isolated membrane preparations from insect cells infected with MDR1-expressing recombinant baculovirus showed that these inhibitors significantly stimulated P-gp-specific ATPase activity and that this stimulation was inhibited by SDZ PSC 833, a potent inhibitor of P-gp. Furthermore, photoaffinity labeling of P-gp with the substrate analogue [125I]iodoarylazidoprazosin (IAAP) was inhibited by all three inhibitors. Cell-based approaches to evaluate the ability of these protease inhibitors to compete for transport of known P-gp substrates showed that all three HIV-1 protease inhibitors were capable of inhibiting the transport of some of the known P-gp substrates but their effects were generally weaker than other documented P-gp modulators such as verapamil or cyclosporin A. Inhibition of HIV-1 replication by all three protease inhibitors was reduced but could be restored by MDR1 inhibitors in cells expressing MDR1. These results indicate that the HIV-1 protease inhibitors are substrates of the human multidrug transporter, suggesting that cells in patients that express the MDR1 transporter will be relatively resistant to the anti-viral effects of the HIV-1 protease inhibitors, and that absorption, excretion, and distribution of these inhibitors in the body may be affected by the multidrug transporter.
This article was published in Biochemistry
and referenced in Journal of Pharmacogenomics & Pharmacoproteomics