Author(s): Porter KM, Sutliff RL, Porter KM, Sutliff RL
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Abstract Over 1 million people in the United States and 33 million individuals worldwide suffer from HIV/AIDS. Since its discovery, HIV/AIDS has been associated with an increased susceptibility to opportunistic infection due to immune dysfunction. Highly active antiretroviral therapies restore immune function and, as a result, people infected with HIV-1 are living longer. This improved survival of HIV-1 patients has revealed a previously unrecognized risk of developing vascular complications, such as atherosclerosis and pulmonary hypertension. The mechanisms underlying these HIV-associated vascular disorders are poorly understood. However, HIV-induced elevations in reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, may contribute to vascular disease development and progression by altering cell function and redox-sensitive signaling pathways. In this review, we summarize the clinical and experimental evidence demonstrating HIV- and HIV antiretroviral therapy-induced alterations in reactive oxygen species and how these effects are likely to contribute to vascular dysfunction and disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This article was published in Free Radic Biol Med
and referenced in Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research