Author(s): Lckhoff A, Horster M
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Abstract The colon participates in water and electrolyte homeostasis by the absorption of sodium (Na) and water as well as by potassium (K) secretion. The primary step of colonic transport is the active Na transport via a transcellular route. Steroidal hormones considerably increase Na absorption by utilizing two mechanisms: (1) passive Na entry into the cells in enhanced by an increased membrane permeability; (2) active transport capacity is increased by a stimulation of ATPase synthesis. Mineralocorticoid versus glucocorticoid actions of steroids have not yet been clearly differentiated; parallel influences are possible. Active chloride (Cl) secretion is found in the colon under certain pathological conditions and is induced by a number of factors, e.g., hormones produced by pancreas tumors. Cellular events involve a rise of intracellular cAMP and calcium (Ca) concentrations, and altered Cl permeabilities. Functional changes of colonic epithelial cells caused by hormones assume a significant role in the etiology of diarrhea, as well as in compensatory processes by which an intestinal loss of electrolytes and water is prevented.
This article was published in Klin Wochenschr
and referenced in Diagnostic Pathology: Open Access