Author(s): Molestina RE, Sinai AP
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Abstract Activation of NF-kappaB by the intracellular pathogen Toxoplasma gondii is associated with the localization of phosphorylated IkappaB alpha to the parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM). This is mediated by a parasite-derived IkappaB kinase (TgIKK) activity and is independent of host IKK function. In the present study, we examined the roles of host IKK and parasite-derived TgIKK on the temporal modulation of NF-kappaB activation. Despite the presence of TgIKK activity at the PVM, nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB and subsequent gene expression exhibited a requirement for the host IKK complex. A detailed kinetic analysis of NF-kappaB activation revealed a biphasic, hierarchical and temporally regulated response. We propose a novel paradigm for the modulation of NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression by T. gondii that involves both the host IKK complex and TgIKK activity at different phases of infection. Thus, T. gondii effectively alters gene expression in a temporal dimension by exploiting the NF-kappaB signaling machinery and subsequently rewiring the activation circuits of the infected host cell.
This article was published in J Cell Sci
and referenced in Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism