Author(s): Niedziela M, Breborowicz D, Trejster E, Korman E
Abstract Share this page
Abstract In an iodine deficient area, a high incidence of hot thyroid nodules was observed in children after the introduction of iodine supplementation in 1997. Thirty-one children (28 girls, 3 boys) were identified with hot nodules between the years 1996-2000 (3 patients in 1996, 4 in 1997, 10 in 1998, 7 in 1999, and 7 in 2000). The incidence ratio of hot nodules in this study population increased significantly from 0.23 in 1996 to 0.80 in 1998. In 17 children, radionuclide uptake was confined exclusively to areas corresponding to the nodules. Cancer was detected in one child in post-operative histological examination. In the other 14 children, the predominant uptake was in nodules, but it was also registered within extranodular tissue. In the latter group, eight tumors were eventually diagnosed as cancer and six as benign tumors. The majority of tumors in the entire group was located in the right lobe (19/31) and was accompanied by reduced TSH levels (23/31), but only 14 of the 31 patients had signs of hyperthyroidism. The years 1996-2000, in which the increase in the incidence of "hot" nodules in children with nodular goiter was observed, correspond to a period of enforced salt iodinization. The existence of cancer within hot nodules is rare, ranging from 2-5\% of all nodules. By contrast, the risk of cancer in hot nodules in the cohort of this study was significantly higher (9/31; 29.0\%), especially in cases of hot nodules with a rudimentary radionuclide uptake in the extranodular area. We conclude that, in geographical regions affected with iodine deficiency, the therapeutic protocol for children with hot nodules should be based primarily on surgery rather than on radioiodine.
This article was published in J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab
and referenced in Journal of Thyroid Disorders & Therapy