Author(s): Wise GJ, Shteynshlyuger A
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Abstract Epidemiologic changes that include immune-compromised patients and drug-resistant fungi have caused an increase in nosocomial infections by Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida species. Other fungi, aspergilla and Cryptococcus (environmental contaminants), are opportunistic invaders of the immune-compromised (transplant, HIV) patients. The environmental fungi Coccidioides immitis (dry arid areas), Histoplasma capsulatum (Avian-infested areas), and Blastomyces dermatitidis (aquatic areas) can cause infections in immune-competent and immune-deficient patients. Each fungus can cause changes in the prostate that mimic bacterial infection, benign prostatic hypertrophy, or neoplasm. Diagnosis can be established by urine cultures or needle biopsy of the prostate. Prostate surgery for carcinoma or benign enlargement may detect latent fungal infection. Different fungal species can have divergent clinical manifestations and require different treatment. In some cases, asymptomatic localized fungal prostatitis can be cured by removal of the infected gland. Symptomatic and disseminated infection may require prostatectomy and systemic antifungal therapy.
This article was published in Curr Urol Rep
and referenced in Fungal Genomics & Biology