Author(s): Zoja C, Corna D, Camozzi D, Cattaneo D, Rottoli D,
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Abstract The current therapy for chronic proteinuric nephropathies is angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi), which slow, but may not halt, the progression of disease, and which may be not effective to the same degree in all patients. In accelerated passive Heymann nephritis (PHN), this study assessed the effect of combining ACEi with angiotensin II receptor antagonist (AIIRA) and with statin that, besides lowering cholesterol, influences inflammatory and fibrogenic processes. Uninephrectomized PHN rats were divided into four groups (n = 10 each) and daily given oral doses of the following: vehicle; 40 mg/L lisinopril; 100 mg/L lisinopril plus L-158,809; 0.3 mg/kg lisinopril plus L-158,809 plus cerivastatin. Treatments started at 2 mo when rats had massive proteinuria and signs of renal injury and lasted until 10 mo. Increases in BP were equally lowered by treatments. ACEi kept proteinuria at levels comparable to pretreatment and numerically lower than vehicle. The addition of AIIRA to lisinopril was more effective, being proteinuria reduced below pretreatment values and significantly lower than vehicle. When cerivastatin was added on top of ACE inhibition and AIIR blockade, urinary protein regressed to normal values and renal failure was prevented. Renal ACE activity was increased threefold in PHN, it was inhibited by more than 60\% after ACEi, and decreased below control values with triple therapy. Cerivastatin inhibited ACE activity by 30\%. Glomerulosclerosis, tubular damage and interstitial inflammation were ameliorated by ACEi alone or combined with AIIRA, and prevented by addition of statin. TGF-beta(1) mRNA upregulation in PHN kidney was partially reduced after ACEi or combined with AIIRA and almost normalized after adding statin. Cerivastatin inhibited TGF-beta(1) gene upregulation by 25\%. These data suggest a possible future strategy to induce remission of proteinuria, lessen renal injury, and protect from loss of function in those patients who do not fully respond to ACEi therapy.
This article was published in J Am Soc Nephrol
and referenced in Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism