Author(s): Vabulas RM, AhmadNejad P, Ghose S, Kirschning CJ, Issels RD,
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Abstract Human heat-shock protein (HSP)70 activates innate immune cells and hence requires no additional adjuvants to render bound peptides immunogenic. Here we tested the assumption that endogenous HSP70 activates the Toll/IL-1 receptor signal pathway similar to HSP60 and pathogen-derived molecular patterns. We show that HSP70 induces interleukin-12 (IL-12) and endothelial cell-leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (ELAM-1) promoters in macrophages and that this is controlled by MyD88 and TRAF6. Furthermore, HSP70 causes MyD88 relocalization and MyD88-deficient dendritic cells do not respond to HSP70 with proinflammatory cytokine production. Using the system of genetic complementation with Toll-like receptors (TLR) we found that TLR2 and TLR4 confer responsiveness to HSP70 in 293T fibroblasts. The expanding list of endogenous ligands able to activate the ancient Toll/IL-1 receptor signal pathway is in line with the "danger hypothesis" proposing that the innate immune system senses danger signals even if they originate from self.
This article was published in J Biol Chem
and referenced in Journal of Aquaculture Research & Development