Author(s): Bardi G, Sengupta R, Khan MZ, Patel JP, Meucci O
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Abstract The chemokine receptor CXCR4 functions as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 coreceptor and is involved in acquired immunodeficiency virus (AIDS) neuropathogenesis. CXCR4 is expressed by most cell types in the brain, including microglia, astrocytes, and neurons. Studies have shown that the HIV envelope protein gp120 binds to neuronal CXCR4 and activates signal transduction pathways leading to apoptosis. However, the natural CXCR4 ligand (CXCL12) has been referred to induce both neuronal survival and death. Here the authors used flow cytometry to determine whether gp120 and CXCL12 differ in their ability to induce CXCR4 internalization in the human neuroblastoma cells SH-SY5Y, which constitutively express CXCR4. As expected, increasing concentration of CXCL12 reduced surface expression of CXCR4 in a time-and concentration-dependent manner. Conversely, gp120IIIB (monomeric or oligomeric, in presence or absence of soluble CD4) did not change CXCR4 membrane levels. Similar results were obtained in a murine lymphocyte cell line (300-19) stably expressing human CXCR4. Nevertheless, gp120IIIB was still able to activate intracellular signaling and proapoptotic pathways, via CXCR4. These results show that gp120IIIB toxicity and signaling do not require CXCR4 internalization in SH-SY5Y cells, and suggest that the viral protein may alter normal CXCR4 trafficking thus, interfering with activation of prosurvival pathways.
This article was published in J Neurovirol
and referenced in Journal of Neuroinfectious Diseases