Author(s): Steers NJ, Peachman KK, McClain SR, Alving CR, Rao M
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Abstract Proteasomes are the major source of proteases responsible for the generation of peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. Antigens, adjuvants, and cytokines can modulate the composition and enzymatic activity of proteasomes and thus alter the epitopes generated. In the present study, we examined the effect of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) p24 on proteasomes from a dendritic cell line (JAWS II), from a macrophage cell line (C2.3), and from murine primary bone marrow-derived macrophages and dendritic cells. HIV-1 p24 downregulated PA28beta and the beta2i subunit of the immunoproteasome complex in JAWS II cells but did not decrease the immunoproteasome subunits in macrophages, whereas in primary dendritic cells, PA28alpha, beta2i, and beta5i were downregulated. Exposure of JAWS II cells and primary dendritic cells to HIV-1 p24 for 90 min significantly decreased the presentation of ovalbumin to a SIINFEKL-specific CD8(+) T-cell hybridoma. The decrease in antigen presentation and the downmodulation of the immunoproteasome subunits in JAWS II cells and primary dendritic cells could be overcome by pretreating the cells with gamma interferon for 6 h or by exposing the cells to HIV-1 p24 encapsulated in liposomes containing lipid A. These results suggest that early antigen processing kinetics could influence the immunogenicity of CD8(+) T-cell epitopes generated.
This article was published in J Virol
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology