Author(s): Yang XB, Whitaker MJ, Sebald W, Clarke N, Howdle SM,
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Abstract The ability to deliver, over time, biologically active osteogenic growth factors by means of designed scaffolds to sites of tissue regeneration offers tremendous therapeutic opportunities in a variety of musculoskeletal diseases. The aims of this study were to generate porous biodegradable scaffolds encapsulating an osteogenic protein, bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2), and to examine the ability of the scaffolds to promote human osteoprogenitor differentiation and bone formation in vitro and in vivo. BMP-2-encapsulated poly(DL-lactic acid) (PLA) scaffolds were generated by an innovative supercritical fluid process developed for solvent-sensitive and thermolabile growth factors. BMP-2 released from encapsulated constructs promoted adhesion, migration, expansion, and differentiation of human osteoprogenitor cells on three-dimensional scaffolds. Enhanced matrix synthesis and cell differentiation on growth factor-encapsulated scaffolds was observed after culture in an ex vivo model of bone formation developed on the basis of the chick chorioallantoic membrane model. BMP-2-encapsulated polymer scaffolds showed morphologic evidence of new bone matrix and cartilage formation after subcutaneous implantation and within diffusion chambers implanted into athymic mice as assessed by X-ray analysis and immunocytochemistry. The generation of three-dimensional biomimetic structures incorporating osteoinductive factors such as BMP-2 indicates their potential for de novo bone formation that exploits cell-matrix interactions and, significantly, realistic delivery protocols for growth factors in musculoskeletal tissue engineering.
This article was published in Tissue Eng
and referenced in Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology