Author(s): Cooke NE, Coit D, Shine J, Baxter JD, Martial JA
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Abstract Prolactin (Prl), growth hormone, and chorionic sommatomammotropin form a set (the "Prl set") of hormones which is thought to have evolved from a common ancestral gene. This assumption is based on several lines of evidence: overlap in their biological and immunological properties, similarities in their amino acid sequences, and homologies in the nucleic acid sequences of their structural genes. In the current study we report the cloning, amplification in bacteria, and sequence analysis of DNA complementary to Prl mRNA isolated from human pituitary Prl-secreting adenomas. The cloned DNA contains 914 bases, which includes the entire coding sequence of human prePrl as well as portions of the 5- and 3'-untranslated regions of the mRNA. The amino acid sequence predicted by our data differs from a previously reported amino acid sequence in 8 positions. With the results of this study we can now compare in one species the nucleotide sequences of the structural gene coding for each of the hormones of the Prl set. The sequence divergence at replacement sites is used to establish an evolutionary clock for the Prl set of genes. Using this clock, we postulate that the chromosomal segregation of human Prl and human growth hormone occurred about 392 million years ago and that growth hormone and chorionic sommatomammotropin underwent an intrachromosomal recombination within the last 10 million years.
This article was published in J Biol Chem
and referenced in Endocrinology & Metabolic Syndrome