Author(s): MandrupPoulsen T, Bendtzen K, Dinarello CA, Nerup J, MandrupPoulsen T, Bendtzen K, Dinarello CA, Nerup J
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Abstract Previous studies have established that the cytokine interleukin 1 (IL-1) is selectively cytotoxic for isolated human and rat pancreatic beta-cells. This observation raises the possibility that insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is in part due to immunologically mediated mechanisms involving IL-1. However, other cytokines are produced during immunologic responses. To study possible modulatory effects of other cytokines on IL-1-mediated beta-cell cytotoxicity, we added human recombinant IL-1 alpha and beta (rIL-1 alpha, rIL-1 beta), tumor necrosis factor (rTNF), lymphotoxin (rLT), and interferon-gamma (rIFN-gamma) separately or in combinations to the culture medium of isolated rat islets of Langerhans. A half-maximal inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin release after 7 days of culture was obtained with 100 pg/ml of rIL-1 beta, whereas 1000 pg/ml of rIL-1 alpha were necessary to obtain an equivalent effect. While ineffective in causing inhibition of beta-cell function or morphologic damage to islets alone 2.5 to 25 ng/ml of rTNF, but not 40 ng/ml of rLT, or 25 ng/ml of rIFN-gamma markedly potentiated the inhibition of beta-cell secretory response and dissolution of islet integrity caused by rIL-1 alpha and beta. The potentiating effect of rTNF was more pronounced if the rTNF was added after 60 min of preincubation of the islets with rIL-1 beta, than if rIL-1 beta was added after 60 min of preincubation with rTNF. rTNF did not interfere with the activity of rIL-1 alpha or beta on lymphocytes. Combinations of rIFN-gamma and rTNF or rLT did not affect beta-cell function. In conclusion, rTNF strongly potentiates the functional inhibition of beta-cells and the morphologic disintegration of islets caused by rIL-1 in vitro. These data, seen in context with previous observations of rIL-1-mediated beta-cell cytotoxicity, suggest that macrophages present in the intra-islet mononuclear cell infiltrate in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus may secrete monokines that could be important effector molecules in beta-cell destruction.
This article was published in J Immunol
and referenced in Immunome Research