Author(s): Manuel O, Pascual M, Hoschler K, Giulieri S, Alves D
BACKGROUND: Few data are available regarding the immunogenicity and safety of the pandemic influenza vaccine in immunocompromised patients. We evaluated the humoral response to the influenza A H1N1/09 vaccine in solid-organ transplant (SOT) recipients, in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and in healthy individuals.
METHODS: Patients scheduled to receive the pandemic influenza vaccine were invited to participate. All participants received the influenza A H1N1/09 AS03-adjuvanted vaccine containing 3.75 μg of hemagglutinin. SOT recipients and HIV-infected patients received 2 doses at 3-week intervals, whereas control subjects received 1 dose. Blood samples were taken at day 0, day 21, and day 49 after vaccination. Antibody responses were measured with the hemagglutination inhibition assay (HIA) and a microneutralization assay.
RESULTS: Twenty-nine SOT recipients, 30 HIV-infected patients, and 30 healthy individuals were included in the study. Seroconversion measured by HIA was observed in 15 (52%) of 29 SOT recipients both at day 21 and day 49; in 23 (77%) of 30 at day 21 and 26 (87%) of 30 at day 49 in HIV-infected patients, and in 20 (67%) of 30 at day 21 and in 23 (77%) of 30 at day 49 in control subjects (P = .12 at day 21 and P = .009 at day 49, between groups). Geometric means of antibody titers were not significantly different between groups at day 21 or at day 49.
CONCLUSIONS: Influenza A H1N1/09 vaccine elicited a similar antibody response in HIV-infected individuals and in control subjects, whereas SOT recipients had an overall lower response. A second dose of the vaccine only moderately improved vaccine immunogenicity in HIV-infected patients.Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research