Author(s): Lean JM, Jagger CJ, Kirstein B, Fuller K, Chambers TJ
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Abstract We recently found that estrogen deficiency leads to a lowering of thiol antioxidant defenses in rodent bone. Moreover, administration of agents that increase the concentration in bone of glutathione, the main intracellular antioxidant, prevented estrogen-deficiency bone loss, whereas depletion of glutathione by buthionine sulfoximine administration provoked substantial bone loss. To analyze further the mechanism by which antioxidant defenses modulate bone loss, we have now compared expression of the known antioxidant enzymes in osteoclasts. We found that glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx), the enzyme primarily responsible for the intracellular degradation of hydrogen peroxide, is overwhelmingly the predominant antioxidant enzyme expressed by osteoclasts and that its expression was increased in bone marrow macrophages by receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL) and in osteoclasts by 17beta-estradiol. We therefore tested the effect of overexpression of Gpx in osteoclasts by stable transfection of RAW 264.7 (RAW) cells, which are capable of osteoclastic differentiation in response to RANKL, with a Gpx-expression construct. Osteoclast formation was abolished. The Gpx expression construct also suppressed RANKL-induced nuclear factor-kappaB activation and increased resistance to oxidation of dihydrodichlorofluorescein by exogenous hydrogen peroxide. We therefore tested the role of hydrogen peroxide in the loss of bone caused by estrogen deficiency by administering pegylated catalase to mice. We found that catalase prevented ovariectomy-induced bone loss. These results suggest that hydrogen peroxide is the reactive oxygen species responsible for signaling the bone loss of estrogen deficiency.
This article was published in Endocrinology
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Experimental Pathology