Author(s): Anastasakis K, Ross AB
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Abstract The brown macro-alga Laminaria saccharina was converted into bio-crude by hydrothermal liquefaction in a batch reactor. The influence of reactor loading, residence time, temperature and catalyst (KOH) loading was assessed. A maximum bio-crude yield of 19.3 wt\% was obtained with a 1:10 biomass:water ratio at 350 °C and a residence time of 15 min without the presence of the catalyst. The bio-crude had an HHV of 36.5 MJ/kg and is similar in nature to a heavy crude oil or bitumen. The solid residue has high ash content and contains a large proportion of calcium and magnesium. The aqueous phase is rich in sugars and ammonium and contains a large proportion of potassium and sodium. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This article was published in Bioresour Technol
and referenced in Journal of Advanced Chemical Engineering