alexa Hyperhomocysteinemia increases beta-amyloid by enhancing expression of gamma-secretase and phosphorylation of amyloid precursor protein in rat brain.


Journal of Alzheimers Disease & Parkinsonism

Author(s): Zhang CE, Wei W, Liu YH, Peng JH, Tian Q,

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Abstract Hyperhomocysteinemia and beta-amyloid (Abeta) overproduction are critical etiological and pathological factors in Alzheimer disease, respectively; however, the intrinsic link between them is still missing. Here, we found that Abeta levels increased and amyloid precursor protein (APP) levels simultaneously decreased in hyperhomocysteinemic rats after a 2-week induction by vena caudalis injection of homocysteine. Concurrently, both the mRNA and protein levels of presenilin-1, a component of gamma-secretase, were elevated, whereas the expression levels of beta-secretase and presenilin-2 were not altered. We also observed that levels of phosphorylated APP at threonine-668, a crucial site facilitating the amyloidogenic cleavage of APP, increased in rats with hyperhomocysteinemia, although the phosphorylation per se did not increase the binding capacity of pT668-APP to the secretases. The enhanced phosphorylation of APP in these rats was not relevant to either c-Jun N-terminal kinase or cyclin-dependent kinase-5. A prominent spatial memory deficit was detected in rats with hyperhomocysteinemia. Simultaneous supplementation of folate and vitamin-B12 attenuated the hyperhomocysteinemia-induced abnormal processing of APP and improved memory. Our data revealed that hyperhomocysteinemia could increase Abeta production through the enhanced expression of gamma-secretase and APP phosphorylation, causing memory deficits that could be rescued by folate and vitamin-B12 treatment in these rats. It is suggested that hyperhomocysteinemia may serve as an upstream factor for increased Abeta production as seen in patients with Alzheimer disease.
This article was published in Am J Pathol and referenced in Journal of Alzheimers Disease & Parkinsonism

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