Author(s): Fishel MA, Watson GS, Montine TJ, Wang Q, Green PS, , Fishel MA, Watson GS, Montine TJ, Wang Q, Green PS,
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Abstract BACKGROUND: Inflammation has been implicated as a pathogenetic factor in Alzheimer disease, possibly via effects on beta-amyloid (Abeta). Hyperinsulinemia induces inflammation and is a risk factor for Alzheimer disease. Thus, insulin abnormalities may contribute to Alzheimer disease pathophysiology through effects on the inflammatory network. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of induced hyperinsulinemia with euglycemia on Abeta, transthyretin, and inflammatory markers and modulators in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). DESIGN: Randomized crossover trial. SETTING: Veterans Affairs hospital clinical research unit. PARTICIPANTS: Sixteen healthy adults ranging from 55 to 81 years of age (mean age, 68.2 years). INTERVENTIONS: On separate mornings, fasting participants received randomized infusions of saline or insulin (1.0 mU.kg(-1).min(-1)) with variable dextrose levels to maintain euglycemia, achieving plasma insulin levels typical of insulin resistance. Plasma and CSF were collected after an approximately 105-minute infusion. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Plasma and CSF levels of interleukin 1alpha, interleukin 1beta, interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, F2-isoprostane (CSF only), Abeta, norepinephrine, transthyretin, and apolipoprotein E. RESULTS: Insulin increased CSF levels of F2-isoprostane and cytokines (both P<.01), as well as plasma and CSF levels of Abeta42 (both P<.05). The changes in CSF levels of Abeta42 were predicted by increased F2-isoprostane and cytokine levels (both P<.01) and reduced transthyretin levels (P = .02). Increased inflammation was modulated by insulin-induced changes in CSF levels of norepinephrine and apolipoprotein E (both P<.05). CONCLUSION: Moderate hyperinsulinemia can elevate inflammatory markers and Abeta42 in the periphery and the brain, thereby potentially increasing the risk of Alzheimer disease.
This article was published in Arch Neurol
and referenced in International Journal of Inflammation, Cancer and Integrative Therapy