Author(s): Prinsen BH, de Sainvan der Velden MG, de Koning EJ, Koomans HA, Berger R
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of mortality in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) caused by numerous factors defined as traditional and uremia-related risk factors. One of these risk factors, dyslipidemia, is often observed in patients with CRF, resulting in abnormal concentrations and composition of plasma lipoproteins. The prominent features of uremic dyslipidemia are an increase in plasma triglycerides and cholesterol in nearly all lipoproteins, and a reduction in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Because of its direct contact with the circulating blood, the endothelium is preferentially subjected to the modulatory effects of these altered lipoproteins. Little is known about the mechanisms for hypertriglyceridemia in CRF. This review highlights several studies over the past years that have contributed to knowledge of hypertriglyceridemia, especially in combination with renal diseases and their dialysis treatment. The underlying mechanisms behind hypertriglyceridemia have not been fully clarified and may indeed be multifactorial. Hypertriglyceridemia may contribute to the progression of atherosclerosis. Therefore, it is essential to study the putative mechanisms for uremic dyslipidemia, since optimal treatment is essential for the prevention or delay of cardiovascular complications in patients with CRF.