Author(s): Maesaka JK, Batuman V, Yudd M, Salem M, Sved AF,
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Abstract Hypouricemia in coexistence with hyponatremia often differentiates the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) from most other causes of hyponatremia. We report clearance studies in 5 cases of hyponatremia and hypouricemia that were not due to SIADH. One had metastatic pancreatic carcinoma with ascites, edema, hypoalbuminemia and hypophosphatemia. Two had adenocarcinoma of the lung with metastasis to the brain in 1, 1 had disseminated cryptococcus and 1 had Hodgkin's disease. None received radiation or known nephrotoxins at least 4 months prior to study. None had serum creatinine greater than 106.1 mumol/l (1.2 mg/dl). Two had postural hypotension and hyponatremia that responded to saline therapy. Fluid restriction corrected the hyponatremia in all patients, but the hypouricemia, high fractional excretion (FE) of urate, and high urine sodium concentration persisted. In 2 patients studied, ADH was appropriately suppressed after volume repletion but there was a defect in free water clearance due to high renal solute excretion. In contrast to patients with SIADH who correct their defect in renal urate transport with correction of hyponatremia by water restriction, our patients appear to have a persistent renal urate transport defect and abnormality in sodium conservation. Elevated FE urate of greater than 10\% after correction of hyponatremia can thus differentiate these patients from SIADH. The diametrically opposing goals of fluid therapy emphasize the importance of differentiating one group from the other.
This article was published in Clin Nephrol
and referenced in Medical & Surgical Urology