alexa Hyponatremia, hyposmolality, and hypotonicity: tables and fables.


Journal of Anesthesia & Clinical Research

Author(s): Oster JR, Singer I

Abstract Share this page

Abstract The difficulty that nonnephrologists sometimes have with the differential diagnosis of hyponatremic patients often results from misinterpreting the significance of measured and calculated serum osmolalities, effective serum osmolalities (tonicities), and the influence of various normal (eg, serum urea nitrogen) and abnormal (eg, ethanol) solutes. Among the more commonly held misconceptions are that high serum urea or alcohol levels will, by analogy with glucose, cause hyponatremia, and that a normal (or elevated) measured serum osmolality in a hyponatremic patient excludes the possibility of hypotonicity. This article describes typical and deliberately comparative data of the serum levels of sodium, glucose, urea nitrogen, and mannitol and/or ethanol (if present); calculated and measured osmolality; effective osmolality; and the potential risk of hypotonicity-induced cerebral edema for each of 6 prototypical hyponatremic states. This provides a helpful educational tool for untangling these interrelationships and for clarifying the differences among various hyponatremic conditions.
This article was published in Arch Intern Med and referenced in Journal of Anesthesia & Clinical Research

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Peer Reviewed Journals
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri & Aquaculture Journals

Dr. Krish

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals


1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Clinical Journals

Datta A

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Food & Nutrition Journals

Katie Wilson

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science

Andrea Jason

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics & Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Materials Science Journals

Rachle Green

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Nursing & Health Care Journals

Stephanie Skinner

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

Ann Jose

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

© 2008- 2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version