alexa Hypospadias: anatomy, etiology, and technique.


Reconstructive Surgery & Anaplastology

Author(s): Baskin LS, Ebbers MB

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Abstract Hypospadias is one of the most common congenital anomalies defined by abortive development of the urethral spongiosum, the ventral prepuce and in more severe cases penile chordee. The etiology of hypospadias remains unknown with environmental exposure in the form of endocrine disruptors the most likely explanation for the worldwide increase in incidence in the last three decades. There are five sequential steps for the successful repair of hypospadias: 1) Orthoplasty or penile straightening, 2) Urethroplasty, 3) Meatoplasty and Glanuloplasty, 4) Scrotoplasty, and 5) Skin Coverage. The major technical advances in hypospadias surgery that have improved surgical outcomes are 1) Preservation of the urethral plate, 2) Incision of the urethral plate, 3) Dorsal midline plication, 4) Deepithelized urethroplasty dartos flap coverage, and 5) Two stage alternative techniques. This article reviews the pertinent embryology, anatomy and the most common hypospadias reconstructive operations to accomplish a successful repair. This article was published in J Pediatr Surg and referenced in Reconstructive Surgery & Anaplastology

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