Author(s): Inamasu J, Guiot BH
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Abstract Iatrogenic carotid artery injury (CAI) results from various neurosurgical procedures. A review of the literature was conducted to provide an update on the management of this potentially devastating complication. Iatrogenic CAIs are categorized according to each diagnostic or therapeutic procedure responsible for the injury, i.e., anterior cervical spine surgery, central venous catheterization, chemical substances, chiropractic manipulation, diagnostic cerebral angiography, middle-ear surgery, percutaneous procedures for trigeminal neuralgia, radiation therapy, skull-base surgery, tracheostomy, and transsphenoidal surgery. The incidence, mechanisms of injury, diagnostic imaging modalities, and reparative procedures are discussed for each procedure. Iatrogenic CAI may be more prevalent than had previously been thought, mostly because of a heightened awareness on the part of physicians and the earlier detection of asymptomatic patients owing to sophisticated and less-invasive imaging modalities. Prevention is the best treatment for every iatrogenic injury, and it is expected that further accumulation of experience with and knowledge of iatrogenic CAI will result in further reduction of this complication. Although some CAIs, such as radiation-induced carotid artery stenosis, may not be preventable, earlier intervention before the patient becomes symptomatic may favorably alter the prognosis. Following the rapid development of endovascular techniques in recent years, surgically inaccessible lesions can be treated in a more reliable and safe manner than before.
This article was published in Neurosurg Rev
and referenced in Anatomy & Physiology: Current Research