Author(s): Zima T, Tesar V, Crkovsk J, Stejskalov A, Pltenk J,
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Abstract BACKGROUND: Reactive oxygen species produced during metabolism of adriamycin are purported to play an important role in the pathogenesis of experimental adriamycin nephropathy in rats. ICRF-187 (dexrazoxan, Cardioxan), an iron chelator, has been shown to inhibit adriamycin-induced formation of hydroxyl radical and to decrease adriamycin cardiotoxicity in oncological patients. The aim of our study was to assess the putative protective role of ICRF-187 in adriamycin nephropathy by evaluating the possible participation of free radicals in its pathogenesis. METHODS: We examined five experimental groups. Group A, received a single dose of adriamycin (5 mg/kg bw i.v.), group CA was given a single dose of ICRF-187 (100 mg/kg bw i.v.) before adriamycin administration, group CCA received a single dose of ICRF-187 (100 mg/kg bw i.v.) before adriamycin administration followed by three weekly intraperitoneal injections (100 mg/kg bw) ICRF-187. Group CC received one dose of ICRF-187 (100 mg/kg bw i.v.) followed by three weekly intraperitoneal injections of ICRF-187, and group N served as control receiving saline. Common biochemical parameters, malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase--GPx and superoxide dismutase--SOD) in blood and kidney homogenates were measure and histology of the kidney was studied after the rats were sacrificed. RESULTS: Full-blown nephrotic syndrome developed after 3 weeks only in A rats. Nephrotic syndrome was completely prevented in all ICRF-187 treated rats (CA, CCA). Proteinuria was significantly increased in A rats (108.2 + 48.4 mg/l of glomerular filtrate) compared with CA (12.4 + 6.8 mg/l, P < 0.0001) and with N (6.1 + 3.5 mg/l, P < 0.0001). Total MDA in erythrocytes was significantly increased only in A rats (1.7 + 0.3 micromol/l) and was completely normalized by ICRF-187 in CA (1.1 + 0.2 micromol/l, P < 0.001). Total TBARS and MDA in kidney homogenates were significantly elevated in groups with repeated administration of ICRF-187 (CC and CCA rats) compared to N, CA, A groups. Activity of GPx and SOD in kidney homogenate and in erythrocytes was not significantly increased by ICRF-187 in adriamycin treated rats. Histologic changes in A rats resembled minimal change nephropathy with fusion of foot processes and hyaline casts in tubules. There was only minimal mesangial proliferation and perivascular mast cell infiltrates in all groups of ICRF-187-treated rats. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that ICRF-187, probably by chelation iron, completely protected rats from adriamycin-induced nephrotic syndrome. It supports the role of iron-mediated reactive oxygen species in the development of this type of glomerular injury. However, repeated administration of ICRF-187 alone is able to increase parameters of oxidative stress in the kidney.
This article was published in Nephrol Dial Transplant
and referenced in Journal of Pharmacogenomics & Pharmacoproteomics