Author(s): Telgmann L, Faber H, Jahn S, Melles D, Simon H,
Abstract Share this page
Abstract Oxidative and potentially metabolic pathways of the five most frequently used contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based on gadolinium (Gd) are examined. The oxidation of gadopentetate (Gd-DTPA) was studied with a focus on electrochemical oxidation coupled to analytical separation methods and mass spectrometric detection. Mass voltammograms generated with online electrochemistry/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EC/ESI-MS) gave a first overview of oxidation products. Two potential metabolites could be detected, with the major metabolite originating from an N-dealkylation (M1). Four other Gd complexes used as MRI contrast agents showed similar reactions in the EC/ESI-MS set-up. To obtain more information about the properties and the quantity of the generated products, a wide range of separation and detection techniques was applied in further experiments. Gd-DTPA and its N-dealkylation product were successfully separated by capillary electrophoresis (CE) and detected by ESI-MS and inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-MS, respectively. CE experiments indicated that the second oxidation product (M2) detected in the mass voltammogram is unstable and decomposes to M1. Employing EC/CE/ICP-MS, the quantification of the metabolites could be achieved. Under the employed conditions, 8.8\% of Gd-DTPA was oxidized. Online experiments with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to ESI-MS confirmed the decomposition of M2. Time-resolved measurements showed a decrease of M2 and a simultaneous increase in M1 within only a few minutes, confirming the conclusion that M2 degrades to M1, while EC/LC/ICP-MS measurements provided quantitative evidence as well. The EC/MS simulation shows that a metabolic transformation should not be disregarded in further research regarding the trigger of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF), a disease exclusively observed for several hundred dialysis patients after delivery of Gd-based MRI contrast agents with linear structure. Furthermore, the used methods may allow the prediction of options for the oxidative removal of these contrast agents from wastewaters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This article was published in J Chromatogr A
and referenced in Journal of Arthritis