Author(s): Redway FA, Vasil V, Lu D, Vasil IK
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Abstract Immature embryos, inflorescences, and anthers of eight commercial cultivars of Triticum aestivum (wheat) formed embryogenic callus on a variety of media. Immature embryos (1.0-1.5 mm long) were found to be most suitable for embryogenic callus formation while anthers responded poorly; inflorescences gave intermediate values. Immature embryos of various cultivars showed significant differences in callus formation in response to 11 of the 12 media tested. No significant differences were observed when the embryos were cultred under similar conditions on MS medium with twice the concentration of inorganic salts, supplemented with 2,4-D, casein hydrolysate and glutamine. Furthermore, with inflorescences also no significant differences were observed. Explants on callus formation media formed two types of embryogenic calli: an off-white, compact, and nodular callus and a white compact callus. Upon successive subcultures (approximately 5 months), the nodular embryogenic callus became more prominent and was identified as 'aged callus'. The aged callus upon further subculture, formed an off-white, soft, and friable embryogenic callus. Both the aged and friable calli maintained their embryogenic capacity over many subculture passages (to date up to 19 months). All embryogenic calli (1 month old) from the different callus-forming media, irrespective of expiant source, formed only green shoots on regeneration media that developed to maturity in the greenhouse. There were no significant differences in the response of calli derived from embryos and inflorescences cultured on the different initiation media. Also, the shoot-forming capacity of the cultivars was not significantly different. Anther-derived calli formed the least shoots. Aged and friable calli on regeneration media also formed green shoots but at lower frequencies. Plants from long-term culture have also been grown to maturity in soil.
This article was published in Theor Appl Genet
and referenced in Cloning & Transgenesis