Author(s): Brittain MK, Brustovetsky T, Brittain JM, Khanna R, Cummins TR,
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Abstract Glutamate-induced delayed calcium dysregulation (DCD) is causally linked to excitotoxic neuronal death. The mechanisms of DCD are not completely understood, but it has been proposed that the excessive influx of external Ca(2+) is essential for DCD. The NMDA-subtype of glutamate receptor (NMDAR) and the plasmalemmal Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger operating in the reverse mode (NCX(rev)) have been implicated in DCD. In experiments with "younger" neurons, 6-8 days in vitro (6-8 DIV), in which the NR2A-containing NMDAR expression is low, ifenprodil, an inhibitor of NR2B-containing NMDAR, completely prevented DCD whereas PEAQX, another NMDAR antagonist that preferentially interacts with NR2A-NMDAR, was without effect. With "older" neurons (13-16 DIV), in which NR2A- and NR2B-NMDARs are expressed to a greater extent, both ifenprodil and PEAQX applied separately failed to prevent DCD. However, combined application of ifenprodil and PEAQX completely averted DCD. Ifenprodil and ifenprodil-like NR2B-NMDAR antagonists Ro 25-6981 and Co 101244 but not PEAQX or AP-5 inhibited gramicidin- and Na(+)/NMDG-replacement-induced increases in cytosolic Ca(2+) mediated predominantly by NCX(rev). This suggests that ifenprodil, Ro 25-6981, and Co 101244 inhibit NCX(rev). The ability of ifenprodil to inhibit NCX(rev) correlates with its efficacy in preventing DCD and emphasizes an important role of NCX(rev) in DCD. Overall our data suggest that both NR2A- and NR2B-NMDARs are involved in DCD in "older" neurons, and it is necessary to inhibit both NMDARs and NCX(rev) to prevent glutamate-induced DCD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This article was published in Neuropharmacology
and referenced in Biochemistry & Pharmacology: Open Access