Author(s): Mehta HV, Jones PH, Weiss JP, Okeoma CM
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Abstract APOBEC3 (A3) proteins are virus-restriction factors that provide intrinsic immunity against infections by viruses like HIV-1 and mouse mammary tumor virus. A3 proteins are inducible by inflammatory stimuli, such as LPS and IFN-α, via mechanisms that are not fully defined. Using genetic and pharmacological studies on C57BL/6 mice and cells, we show that IFN-α and LPS induce A3 via different pathways, independently of each other. IFN-α positively regulates mouse APOBEC3 (mA3) mRNA expression through IFN-αR/PKC/STAT1 and negatively regulates mA3 mRNA expression via IFN-αR/MAPKs-signaling pathways. Interestingly, LPS shows some variation in its regulatory behavior. Although LPS-mediated positive regulation of mA3 mRNA occurs through TLR4/TRIF/IRF3/PKC, it negatively modulates mA3 mRNA via TLR4/MyD88/MAPK-signaling pathways. Additional studies on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells reveal that PKC differentially regulates IFN-α and LPS induction of human A3A, A3F, and A3G mRNA expression. In summary, we identified important signaling targets downstream of IFN-αR and TLR4 that mediate A3 mRNA induction by both LPS and IFN-α. Our results provide new insights into the signaling targets that could be manipulated to enhance the intracellular store of A3 and potentially enhance A3 antiviral function in the host.
This article was published in J Immunol
and referenced in Journal of Infectious Diseases & Therapy