Author(s): Tirotta E, Kirby LA, Hatch MN, Lane TE
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Abstract Engraftment of human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived OPCs in animal models of demyelination results in remyelination and clinical recovery, supporting the feasibility of cell replacement therapies in promoting repair of damaged neural tissue. A critical gap in our understanding of the mechanisms associated with repair revolves around the effects of the local microenvironment on transplanted cell survival. We have determined that treatment of human ESC-derived OPCs with the pleiotropic cytokine IFN-γ promotes apoptosis that is associated with mitochondrial cytochrome c released into the cytosol with subsequent caspase 3 activation. IFN-γ-induced apoptosis is mediated, in part, by secretion of the CXC chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10) from IFN-γ-treated cells. Signaling through the chemokine receptor CXCR2 by the ligand CXCL1 functions in a tonic manner by muting apoptosis and this is associated with reduced levels of cytosolic cytochrome c and impaired cleavage of caspase 3. These findings support a role for both IFN-γ and CXCL10 in contributing to neuropathology by promoting OPC apoptosis. In addition, these data suggest that hOPCs used for therapeutic treatment for human neurologic disease/damage are susceptible to death through exposure to local inflammatory cytokines present within the inflammatory milieu. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This article was published in Stem Cell Res
and referenced in Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy