Author(s): Chaouat G, Assal Meliani A, Martal J, Raghupathy R, Elliott JF
CBA x DBA/2 placentae are quantitatively or qualitatively deficient in their production of the anti-inflammatory Th2-type cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 compared with the nonresorption-prone CBA x BALB/c mating combination. Wastage in this mating combination is accompanied by increased levels of local inflammatory cytokines. In addition, alloimmunization enhances the placental production of IL-4 and IL-10 in CBA x DBA/2 matings. Furthermore, rIL-10 by itself completely reverses the high incidence of fetal resorption after i.p. injection. Conversely, anti-IL-10 increases the resorption rate, but only in CBA x DBA/2 matings. On the other hand, injecting either anti-IFN-gamma or pentoxifillin (an anti-TNF agent) partially reduces the resorption. When given together, they produce a synergistic remission of fetal loss. Finally, we report that recombinant ovine trophoblast protein, an IFN-tau which is known to influence reproductive outcome in ruminants, can also counteract increased CBA x DBA/2 fetal resorption. It simultaneously induces increased placental IL-4 and IL-10 production in this mating combination. These results indicate that the placentally produced anti-inflammatory cytokines can play a vital role in the survival to term of the fetal allograft, by counteracting deleterious inflammatory cytokines.