alexa Illiteracy, low educational status, and cardiovascular mortality in India.
Psychiatry

Psychiatry

Journal of Socialomics

Author(s): Pednekar MS, Gupta R, Gupta PC

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Abstract BACKGROUND: Influence of education, a marker of SES, on cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality has not been evaluated in low-income countries. To determine influence of education on CVD mortality a cohort study was performed in India. METHODS: 148,173 individuals aged ≥ 35 years were recruited in Mumbai during 1991-1997 and followed to ascertain vital status during 1997-2003. Subjects were divided according to educational status into one of the five groups: illiterate, primary school (≦ 5 years of formal education), middle school (6-8 years), secondary school (9-10 years) and college (> 10 years). Multivariate analyses using Cox proportional hazard model was performed and hazard ratios (HRs) and 95\% confidence intervals (CIs) determined. RESULTS: At average follow-up of 5.5 years (774,129 person-years) 13,261 deaths were observed. CVD was the major cause of death in all the five educational groups. Age adjusted all-cause mortality per 100,000 in illiterate to college going men respectively was 2154, 2149, 1793, 1543 and 1187 and CVD mortality was 471, 654, 618, 518 and 450; and in women all-cause mortality was 1444, 949, 896, 981 and 962 and CVD mortality was 429, 301, 267, 426 and 317 (ptrend < 0.01). Compared with illiterate, age-adjusted HRs for CVD mortality in primary school to college going men were 1.36, 1.27, 1.01 and 0.88 (ptrend < 0.05) and in women 0.69, 0.55, 1.04 and 0.74, respectively (ptrend > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Inverse association of literacy status with all-cause mortality was observed in Indian men and women, while, for CVD mortality it was observed only in men.
This article was published in BMC Public Health and referenced in Journal of Socialomics

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