Author(s): Rizas KD, Ippagunta N, Tilson MD rd, Rizas KD, Ippagunta N, Tilson MD rd
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Abstract Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a multifactorial disease with genetic risk factors and an immunologic component. Immune cells, including macrophages, neutrophils, mast cells, B- and T- lymphocytes, along with vascular smooth muscle cells and adventitial fibroblasts, produce cytokines and enzymes, promoting an inflammatory reaction, extracellular matrix degradation, and neovascularization. Among the different enzymes secreted by immune and stromal cells, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, MMP-12, cathepsins, and neutrophil elastase cause medial degeneration. Chymase causes smooth muscle cell apoptosis, and MMP-3, MMP-8, and MMP-13 cause adventitial collagen degradation, promoting abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture. At the same time chemokines (interleukin 8, macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha, monocyte chemotactic protein-1) cause recruitment and proliferation of inflammatory cells, whereas cytokines (vascular endothelial growth factor and transforming growth factor-beta) promote neoangiogenesis.
This article was published in Cardiol Rev
and referenced in Journal of Surgery