Author(s): Panigrahi A, Kiron V, Satoh S, Hirono I, Kobayashi T,
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Abstract This study elucidates the immune modulation including the expression of cytokine genes following dietary administration of three selected probiotic bacteria--Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Enterococcus faecium and Bacillus subtilis to fish, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. They were fed for 45 days on either a basal control diet or one of the three probiotic diets containing the specific bacteria in freeze-dried form at a density of 10(9)CFUgfeed-1. The non-specific immune parameters examined--superoxide anion production by the head kidney leukocytes and the alternate complement activity of serum was improved by probiotic feeding. Besides this, the relative gene expressions of interleukin-1beta1, tumor necrosis factor 1 and 2 and transforming growth factor-beta were up regulated in the spleen and the head kidney. The comparatively better performance of E. faecium could possibly be linked to their suitable ambient temperature conditions. Thus, probiotic bacteria delivered in feed exerts its influence on the immune system of fish, both at cellular and molecular levels.
This article was published in Dev Comp Immunol
and referenced in Journal of Aquaculture Research & Development