Author(s): Weetman A
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Abstract Reconstitution Graves' disease occurs in three settings. First, bone marrow transplantation from a donor with Graves' disease may cause this disease to appear in the recipient, as a result of adoptive immunity, although disordered immunoregulation secondary to graft-versus-host disease may also play a role. Second, alemtuzumab treatment for multiple sclerosis leads to the development of Graves' disease in up to a third of patients during the phase of naive T-cell expansion, which follows therapeutic lymphocyte depletion. Other reconstitution autoimmune phenomena, including immune thrombocytopaenic purpura, are also recognised after alemtuzumab administration. Finally, reconstitution Graves' disease may occur during a similar phase of CD4(+) T-cell expansion, which follows highly active antiretroviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus infection. Again, this complication is part of a broader spectrum of immunoregulatory disturbances, which can arise after immune reconstitution. The mechanisms responsible for reconstitution Graves' disease are at present unclear, but may include a relative bias towards a Th2-mediated immune response and reduced competition for autoreactive lymphocytes to expand during the time when recovery from lymphopenia commences.
This article was published in Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology