Author(s): Hobo W, Strobbe L, Maas F, Fredrix H, GreupinkDraaisma A,
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Abstract The introduction of autologous stem cell transplantation (SCT) and novel drugs has improved overall survival in multiple myeloma (MM) patients. However, minimal residual disease (MRD) remains and most patients eventually relapse. Myeloma plasma cells express tumor-associated antigens (TAA), which are interesting targets for immunotherapy. In this phase 1 study, we investigated the safety and immunological effects of TAA-mRNA-loaded dendritic cell (DC) vaccination for treatment for MRD in MM after SCT. Mature monocyte-derived DCs were pulsed with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and electroporated with MAGE3, Survivin or B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) mRNA. Twelve patients were vaccinated three times with intravenous (5-22 × 10(6) DCs) and intradermal vaccines (4-11 × 10(6) DCs), at biweekly intervals. Immunological responses were monitored in blood and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) biopsies. All patients developed strong anti-KLH T-cell responses, but not KLH antibodies. In 2 patients, vaccine-specific T cells were detected in DTH biopsies. In one patient, we found MAGE3-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, and CD3(+) T cells reactive against BCMA and Survivin. In the other patient, we detected low numbers of MAGE3 and BCMA-reactive CD8(+) T cells. Vaccination was well tolerated with limited toxicity. These findings illustrate that TAA-mRNA-electroporated mature DCs are capable of inducing TAA-T-cell responses in MM patients after SCT.
This article was published in Cancer Immunol Immunother
and referenced in Journal of Vaccines & Vaccination