Author(s): Schaefer MB, Ott J, Mohr A, Bi MH, Grosz A,
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Abstract OBJECTIVE: Cytokines, platelet-activating factor (PAF), and eicosanoids control local and systemic inflammation. Conventional soybean oil-based lipid emulsions used for parenteral nutrition may aggravate the leukocyte inflammatory response or adhesion to the vessel wall. Fish oil-based lipid emulsions, in contrast, may exert an anti-inflammatory effect. DESIGN: We investigated the impact of lipid emulsions on leukocyte invasion, protein leakage, and cytokines in two murine models of acute inflammation. SETTING: Research laboratory of a university hospital. SUBJECTS: Wild-type mice and PAF-receptor knockout mice. INTERVENTIONS: Mice received an infusion of normal saline, fish oil- or soybean oil-based lipid emulsions before lipopolysaccharide challenge. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Preinfusion with soybean oil resulted in increased leukocyte invasion, myeloperoxidase activity, and protein leakage and exaggerated release of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha as well as macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 into the alveolar space after intratracheal lipopolysaccharide challenge. In contrast, preinfusion with fish oil reduced leukocyte invasion, myeloperoxidase activity, protein leakage, and TNF-alpha as well as MIP-2 generation. Corresponding profiles were found in plasma following intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide application: Soybean oil increased but fish oil decreased the TNF-alpha and MIP-2 formation. When PAF-receptor-deficient mice were challenged with lipopolysaccharide, leukocyte invasion, lung tissue myeloperoxidase, cytokine generation, and alveolar protein leakage corresponded to those observed in wild-type animals. Fish oil and soybean oil lost their diverging effects on leukocyte transmigration, myeloperoxidase activity, leakage response, and cytokine generation in these knockout mice. Similarly, the differential impact of both lipid emulsions on these lipopolysaccharide-provoked changes was suppressed after pretreating animals with a PAF-receptor antagonist. CONCLUSIONS: Fish oil- vs. soybean oil-based lipid infusions exert anti- vs. proinflammatory effects in murine models of acute inflammation. The PAF/PAF-receptor-linked signaling appears to be a prerequisite for this differential profile.
This article was published in Crit Care Med
and referenced in Journal of Pulmonary & Respiratory Medicine