Author(s): WaldronLynch F, Herold KC
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Abstract Type 1 diabetes is a common, severe chronic autoimmune disease that is characterized by the progressive and insidious loss of self-tolerance to the insulin-producing pancreatic islet β-cells. This loss of self-tolerance leads to the destruction of β-cells and the development of overt hyperglycaemia at diagnosis. The incidence and prevalence of type 1 diabetes is rapidly increasing worldwide, and this has led to intensive efforts to develop immunotherapies to induce remission of the disease and improve clinical outcomes. Immunotherapy aims to restore self-tolerance, resulting in the downregulation of autoimmune responses to pancreatic self-antigens and arrested ongoing β-cell destruction. When combined with replacement of the lost insulin-producing cells, this may lead to the restoration of euglycaemia. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge of the immunopathogenesis of type 1 diabetes and how this information has been translated into clinical trials. We also discuss next-generation combination immunotherapies that may be administered as adjuvant therapy at time of diagnosis.
This article was published in Nat Rev Drug Discov
and referenced in Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy