Author(s): van Etten E, Mathieu C
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Abstract 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)), the biologically active metabolite of Vitamin D(3), not only regulates bone and calcium metabolism but also exerts other biological activities, including immunomodulation via the nuclear Vitamin D receptor expressed in antigen-presenting cells and activated T cells. This regulation is mediated through interference with nuclear transcription factors such as NF-AT and NF-kappaB or by direct interaction with Vitamin D responsive elements in the promoter regions of cytokine genes. Dendritic cells (DCs) are primary targets for the immunomodulatory activity of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), as indicated by inhibited DC differentiation and maturation, leading to down-regulated expression of MHC-II, costimulatory molecules and IL-12. Moreover, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) enhances IL-10 production and promotes DC apoptosis. Together, these effects of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) inhibit DC-dependent T cell activation. Immunomodulation by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and its analogs in vivo has been demonstrated in different models of autoimmune diseases and transplantation. Moreover, combining analogs with other immunosuppressants leads to synergism in models of autoimmunity and transplantation. The availability of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) analogs with immunomodulatory activity at non-hypercalcemic doses may allow exploitation of their immunomodulatory effects in a clinical setting of treatment of autoimmune diseases and prevention of allograft rejection.
This article was published in J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol
and referenced in Vitamins & Minerals
- Yosef Yarden
Classically, the 3âuntranslated region (3âUTR) is that region in eukaryotic protein-coding genes from the translation termination codon to the polyA signal. It is transcribed as an integral part of the mRNA encoded by the gene. However, there exists another kind of RNA, which consists of the 3âUTR alone, without all other elements in mRNA such as 5âUTR and coding region. The importance of independent 3âUTR RNA (referred as I3âUTR) was prompted by results of artificially introducing such RNA species into malignant mammalian cells. Since 1991, we found that the middle part of the 3âUTR of the human nuclear factor for interleukin-6 (NF-IL6) or C/EBP gene exerted tumor suppression effect in vivo. Our subsequent studies showed that transfection of C/EBP 3âUTR led to down-regulation of several genes favorable for malignancy and to up-regulation of some genes favorable for phenotypic reversion. Also, it was shown that the sequences near the termini of the C/EBP 3âUTR were important for its tumor suppression activity. Then, the C/EBP 3âUTR was found to directly inhibit the phosphorylation activity of protein kinase CPKC in SMMC-7721, a hepatocarcinoma cell line. Recently, an AU-rich region in the C/EBP 3âUTR was found also to be responsible for its tumor suppression. Recently we have also found evidence that the independent C/EBP 3âUTR RNA is actually exists in human tissues, such as fetal liver and heart, pregnant uterus, senescent fibroblasts etc. Through 1990âs to 2000âs, world scientists found several 3âUTR RNAs that functioned as artificial independent RNAs in cancer cells and resulted in tumor suppression. Interestingly, majority of genes for these RNAs have promoter-like structures in their 3âUTR regions, although the existence of their transcribed products as independent 3âUTR RNAs is still to be confirmed. Our studies indicate that the independent 3âUTR RNA is a novel non-coding RNA species whose function should be the regulation not of the expression of their original mRNA, but of some essential life activities of the cell as a whole.
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