alexa Immunostimulation of juvenile turbot (Scophthalmusmaximus L.) using an alginate with high mannuronic acid content administered via the live food organism Artemia
Agri and Aquaculture

Agri and Aquaculture

Fisheries and Aquaculture Journal

Author(s): Jorunn Skjermo

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In the present experiments we have demonstrated increased protection against a pathogenic bacterium in juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.), after feeding the juveniles the live food organism Artemia enriched with a suspension of alginate micro-spheres containing an immunostimulant. Most likely the effect was due to stimulation of the non-specific defence of the juveniles. Poor control of the microbial conditions in the intensive rearing facilities may adversely affect the health of fish larvae, and is most likely one of the main factors restricting production of marine juveniles. Methods which help to control the microflora in the system or improve the resistance of the larvae against bacterial infection may substantially improve larval viability (Vadstein et al., 1993). Newly hatched marine fish larvae have not developed a specific immune defence. Except for eventual maternally transferred immunity, as described for tilapias (Mor & Avtalion, 1990), the larvae therefore strongly depend on non-specific immunity against bacterial infections. Several studies have shown that the non-specific defence system of fish can be stimulated (Robertsen et al., 1991; Anderson, 1992). Alginate is reported to have a strong stimulatory effect on cytokine production by human monocytes, with the mannuronic acid as the major active component (Otterlei et al., 1991; Espevik et al., 1993). Incubation of yolk sac larvae of Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) in water to which mannuronic acid rich alginate (FMI) was added, improved the survival rate (Vadstein et al., 1993). This suggests that FMI may stimulate the non-specific system of marine fish larvae.

This article was published in Fish & Shellfish Immunology and referenced in Fisheries and Aquaculture Journal

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